২৫শে ফেব্রুয়ারি ২০২১ ইং | ১২ই ফাল্গুন ১৪২৭ বঙ্গাব্দ
প্রকাশিত: ১২:০৫ পূর্বাহ্ণ, মার্চ ২৪, ২০১৯
-by Soumik Dutta Roy
The author would like to acknowledge this work to:
1) Mrittika Goon on occasion of whose birthday the author wanted to share historical and biographical work.
2) Sanjib Dutta Roy , Nirmalendu Goon , Paramita Biswas , Shibabrata Nandi and Soumitra Dev who all encouraged him to write a book on family history.
3) To deceased Binapani Dutta Roy / Goon, Renuka Dutta Roy / Roy ( Binapani’s elder sister) and Asit Ranjan Dutta Roy who were always the invisible source of inspiration and motivation
The Author,with a vision to popularize Bengali culture and literature through English as per the solution propounded by the Bangladeshi students of University of Toronto this 21st February on the eve of International Mother Language Day, brings forward to his beloved readers the compendium of biography of the most prolific poet of 21st century Bengali poetry Nirmalendu Goon.
The author also discusses the contemporary history of Bangladesh, from it being a part of a province of British India to it being an independent nation, that went parallel to Goon’s singular voyage of life to becoming the most successful poet of not only Bangladesh ; but also of the Bengal (Bangladesh and Indian state of West Bengal) as a whole.
The author would however like to affirm that he,by writing about atrocities and heinous crimes committed on Bengali nationalists by repressive authoritarian Pakistani military regime,doesn’t want to instigate any form of hatred against Pakistan and believes in solidarity, friendship and good rapport between people of all nationalities , religions, customs and castes.
The writer, being a proponent of Russia’s philanthropic socialistic approach and also a supporter of Russia’s this sort of commitment to preserving sovereignty of nations across the globe,explicates to the readers how Russian intervention in Bangladesh liberation War thwarted all western military advances that could otherwise have become a formidable and invincible impediment in the path of Bangladesh then impending towards it’s independence in 1971.
Being a Bengali and having a natural predilection towards Bengali culture ; the author also talks about Sarat Chandra Bose (Indian freedom fighter Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose’s brother ) and Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy propounding the United Bengal plan while India was on the brink of partition to prevent Rabindranath Tagore’s “Sonar Bangla” from being ripped apart into two shards when Nirmalendu Goon was still on his mother’s lap.
From India’s Bengal province to the present independent Bangladesh
Nirmalendu Goon’s voyage of life from very infant to being the greatest poet of Bangladesh in the 21st century virtually takes us from Bengal province of British India through East Bengal province of Dominion of Pakistan to People’s Republic of Bangladesh.
So long an epoch has elapsed and yet the essence of being a Bengali is so strong that a journey from Calcutta to Khulna via the newly reestablished railway link brings before us an eternal ambience of the former undivided Bengal through which Bibhuti Bhishon Bandyopadhya’s character Apu travelled to his in-law countryside home at Khulna.
The author, succumbing to this eternal essence,wishes to stipulate the contemporary historical timeline of undivided Bengal (from 1945 to 1947) and East Bengal (post 1947), that went parallel to Goon’s perigrination to becoming one of the greatest poets of 21st century Bengali literature, to all the patient readers before starting off with the compendium of biography of the revolutionary poet .
In 1945, when Goon was born to Sukhendu Prakash Goon Chowdhuri and Binapani Dutta Roy /Goon at Netrakona district of Bengal province in British India , Bengal was one of the most industrialized regions of the world catering to the then highly voluminous worldwide jute demand.It’s capital Calcutta was still the second most prosperous city in the British Empire after London and the most prosperous city east of the Suez Canal despite the Imperial British Indian Capital having shifted to New Delhi over Raisina Hills adjacent to Old Delhi /Shahjahanabad, the capital of the former Mughal Empire, way back in 1911.The second World War had just terminated and the victorious British Empire, now desiccated of finances due to mammoth wartime expenditures, was on the verge of collapse. The British colonies, that were once the sources of plethora of food, force and fortune that London till now boasted of , were now it’s foremost burdens.
Taking advantage of the situation Nationalists political parties like Indian National Congress and Muslim League aggrandized the independence movement to which the British were now compelled to concede to. But their was an ingrained communal divide in British India that the British had till now,since from East India company times,aggravated in order to rule with ease.They had started the Hindu dominant landlord system for ease of taxation in which the heinous Hindu landlords interceded between the Muslim dominant peasantry and Bengal government. The wide economic despairity between the Hindu dominant landlords and Muslim dominant peasantry and the atrocious stifling of the later by the former, which were pith of the British divide and rule policy, fathered the All India Muslim League at Dacca to bolster the extrapolation of the interest of the suppressed Muslims at the Parliament and the provincial legislatures. The retaliation to this was the founding of the Rashtriya Swayam Sevak Sangh and the Hindu Mahasabha and further retaliation from the Muslim side was the development of the Muslim revolutionary guards.The divide and rule policy of the British triggered greater communal divide which finally culminated at the partition of India and it’s culturally and economically richest province Bengal.
At the Lahore resolution of March 1940 the members of the Muslim League sought to create an autonomous homeland for Indian Muslims that was later to become Pakistan. Muslim League ruled Bengal,according to the resolution,was to become part of the new dominion of Pakistan.In August 1946 a Muslim League rally and strike was held at Calcutta which aimed to aggradize the Pakistan movement in Bengal.Khwaja Nizamuddin’s provocative comments fomented the initiating Muslim mobs and the retaliating Hindu mobs to riot against each other.The myriad of carnage in the riots triggered the naming of that incident as “The Great Calcutta Killings”.Things aggravated to a new menial level on October 1946 when, for a week after Laxmi puja, a myriad of Bengali Hindus at Noakhali were subjected to persecution and forced religious conversion to Islam by agitated fomented Bengali Muslim mobs,who were activity championed by the sadistic Muslim revolutionary guards.
When cleavage of India on communal domain and the prospect of Indian frontiers being circumscribed to just it’s Hindu dominant parts seemed to be impending towards an inevitable reality due to escalating communal incompatibility;the then Prime Minister of Bengal Hussein Sayed Shahrawurdy sought support of Bengali nationalist leaders like Congress leader Sarat Chandra Bose,erstwhile Governor of Bengal Frederick Burrows, Mahatma Gandhi and Muslim League leader Mohammad Ali Jinnah and propounded the United Bengal plan that aimed to beget an independent Bengali nation comprising of region of present day Indian state of West Bengal and People’s Republic of Bangladesh, that would neither be a part of India nor Pakistan,in order to preempt any pitiful partition.But this plan was thwarted by Hindu Mahasabha leader Shyama Prasad Mookherjee,who used Noakhali Riots as a pretext for flouting the plan,and Muslim League Leader Khwaja Nizamuddin.Finally the United Bengal plan,due to Bengali nationalist leaders being noncommittal on the future of present day North Eastern states and on the foreign policy of the would be newly independent Bengali nation, remained a chimerical scheme that couldn’t ever materialize.Finally due to lack of support the proposal was flouted by Lord Mountbatten,the then and last viceroy of British India.Cyrill Radcliffe was rallied to limn the partition line between India and Pakistan that would then traverse through the Bengali hinterland pruning apart the land of Bengal and also it’s enriched cultural heritage after proceedings favouring cleavage of Bengal between Union of India and Dominion of Pakistan were passed in the then Bengal Legislative Assembly,the largest legislative assembly in the erstwhile British India in terms of representation.
Population of minorities continued to dwindle during partition and for subsequent decades even after partition due to riots on both sides of the border till East Bengal was utterly unfettered from atrocious Pakistani forces by Bangla mukti Bahini and allied Indian forces after instrumentation of surrender conceded by General Nyazi on behalf of Pakistan army and pro Islamic bellicose squads of Razzakars and Al Badr to General Jagjit Singh Aurora on behalf of the victorious Bangla Mukti Bahini and allied Indian forces on 16th December 1971,which marked the termination of Bangladesh liberation War that had initiated the day after Operation Searchlight of 25th March when Pakistani Army, in retaliation to attack on Bihari Muslims by Bengali Language proponents at Chittagong, took to streets of Dacca and openly attacked and killed myriad of people with predilection and sympathy towards Bengali nationalism.
The writer would now want to concisely explicate the political developments that were precursors of the Bangladesh liberation War of 1971.The roots of the cleavage between East and West Pakistan, that later culminated at 1971 Bangladesh liberation War, can be traced to stem from 21st February 1952 when four students Salam, Barkat,Rafiq and Jabbar,while on a remonstrance rally against imposition of Urdu as the sole official language of the then Bengali dominant Pakistan in 1948,were ruthlessly shot down by heinous Pakistani authorities due to rallies against imposition of Urdu as the sole official language being ostracized by the then government of Pakistan.
The first president of Pakistan Iskandar Ali Mirza,in order to stifle the then ongoing political turmoil within the newly elected civilian government under frequently changing prime ministers,though it politic to aggradize the power of the military and turn the country into a controlled democracy with army being the most powerful institution of the country;more powerful than even the government of Pakistan.He became the quarry of his own reform and was usurped subsequently in 1959 by erstwhile chief of army staff of Pakistan Ayub Khan who then ruled the country as an autocrat for the next decade.Iskandar Mirza had found it circumspect to impose martial law and thus abrogate the Constitution, circumscribe the prerogatives of the central and provincial assemblies and stymie the fitful elections at both the strata of government in order to scotch depravity and political anarchy within the ruling Muslim League by coercion.
From 7th June 1966 the nation under Mujib had aggrandized the 6 point demand that demanded retraction of martial law,restoration of democracy and thwarting of capital flight from East to West Pakistan by giving greater autonomy to East Bengal and, if needed, by legalizing separate currency in East Bengal than rest of the provinces of Pakistan located on it’s western shard.On May 1967 Mujib was apprehended by Pakistani authorities who felt that Mujib’s statements were arousing the masses of East Bengal into remonstrance stumping the essence of national unity.By 1968 student’s groups had taken to streets with the eleven point demand that succored and strengthened Mujib’s 6 point demand.The whole polity of Pakistan seemed to seethe in a tide of turbulence.Cavalcades of expostulations against Ayub’s authoritarian regime became more and more prevalent in Dacca and also in other cities of East Bengal.
By February 1969 the nation ascended into remonstrance against the ascendency of atrocious autocratic Ayub Khan.Direct Action Committee was jointly formed by members of all political parties who united to terminate the till now prevailing authoritarian regime by putting aside their drastically diverging ideologies.On 22nd February the government was compelled to concede to the demands of the protestors and unfetter Mujib out of bars.On 23rd February Mujib,at the race course ground of Dacca,was conferred the title Bangabandhu infront of a crowd of one million people who had gathered there to listen to their beloved leader after his so long an epoch behind bars.
On 24th March Mujib left for Rawalpindi to attend the Round Table Conference that was to be held the day after the next day with Direct Action Committee(DAC) members and after which Ayub,succumbing to the rising remonstrances by constituents of parties in DAC,was to hold elections at both central and provincial assemblies,restore democracy and retract martial law.The second round of talks of Round Table Conference were held on 10th & 11th March at Rawalpindi during which Mujib propounded the 6 point and 11 point demand infront of Ayub after an epoch of leave for Eid during which Bangabandhu had gone to his countryside home at Tungipara for the first time ever since his release.The caucus at Rawalpindi proved to be futile when,shortly after this,Ayub was compelled to abdicate on 25th March under pressure from his once subordinate general Yaya Khan who then assumed the office of the president after non violently usurping Ayub taking advantage of the enhancing expostulations against him.Martial law continued to be in implementation to ameliorate the turbulent situation and stifle all remonstrances by coercion.
But Yaya Khan promised to retract,at the earliest,the military back to the barracks and also to hold elections at both the strata of government after which the newly elected national legislature was to gift the country a new constitution.But a hindrance had to be surmounted before the promise to materialize.Pakistan,till now,didn’t have the fundamental right of “one vote by one person” provision for which on 31st March 1970 a statute termed Legal Framework Order was passed to guarantee all the citizens of the country an equal right to vote. Elections,which were initially then predestined to be held at both the strata of government on the month of September but later got tarried due to severe deluge in East Bengal during September,were now to be held on November 1970. In November not even the fetal cyclone,resulting in myriad of casualties and deaths,couldn’t act as deterrent to the impending elections due to Mujib opposing any further delay.The elections saw the victory margin of Awami League culminating to a new zenith and the Pakistan People’s Party and Muslim League facing worst debacle with their vote shares plummeting to a new nadir.But the assembly wasn’t even rallied to form the federal government as Bhutto,the leader of largest party of West Pakistan Pakistan People’s Party,and Yaya Khan were disinclined to concede the federal powers at Islamabad to a political party from East Pakistan.This fomented feral ferment and cavalcades of expostulations all across cities and towns of East Pakistan.During 7 th March speech of 1971 at Dacca’s race course ground Mujib denounced Yaya not summoning the federal assembly as him having an utter predilection towards West Pakistan and also as him showing sheer aversion to the mandate of people of East Pakistan.
This strife embittered into Bangladesh liberation War that led to the creation of the Bengali homeland that we now know as Bangladesh.
During the Bangladesh liberation War from 26th March to 16th December the provisional government of Tajauddin Ahmed,the would be first Prime Minister of Bangladesh,was stationed at Calcutta which was now serving as the capital of West Bengal having dwindled in prominence, progress and prestige from the glorious capital of Imperial British India to a mere provincial capital of a divided province with a crumbling economy and waning opportunities.It’s infrastructures was adversely affected due it being unable to succumb to the increasing demands of increasing number of refugees from East Bengal.
The provisional government,composed of the first prime minister and many other would be first cabinet ministers of the then newly emerging Bangladesh,was actively joined and bolstered by defections of East Bengali military, and administrative employees and also by plethora of poets,intellectuals and writers.The provisional government,due to being stationed at Calcutta,came to be also known as the government-in-exile of Bangladesh with Calcutta as it’s de-facto capital or capital in exile .The provisional government was also called Mujibnagar government due to the venue of it’s formation being Mujibnagar in East Bengal on 10th April 1971.The incipient Bangladeshi corps,the Constituent assembly of Bangladesh,Bangla Mukti Bahini of defected military, paramilitary and guerilla forces and the Independent Bangladesh Radio all got subsumed into this Mujibnagar government.The place was formerly known as Baidyanathtala and is located in Meherpur district of Bangladesh. Subsequently with the proclamation of independence of Bangladesh on 26th March by Bangabandhu,which was also broadcasted at Kalurghat radio station in Chittagong the very next day by Lieutenant General Ziaur Rahman who later led the Z command of Mukti Bahini allied defected Pakistani forces from East Bengal during Bangladesh Liberation War,and declaration of war of liberation from West Pakistani forces;the place was renamed Mujibnagar in honor of fortitude and chauvinism of Shekh Mujibur Rahman,the would be father and first president of the world’s solitary Bengali nation that we now call Bangladesh.
The provisional government of Bangladesh at Calcutta established diplomatic missions at national capitals like New Delhi, Washington DC and London to arouse international support for their cause.
During the last 13 days of Bangladesh Liberation War when,with auxiliary Indian intervention, the liberation of Bangladesh seemed inevitable;the United States,UK, China,United Arab Emirates,Indonesia, France,Iran,Turkey and Jordan all stuck their nose into the otherwise bilateral war bothering just India and Pakistan.The Pakistan army was now being bolstered by aircrafts from Turkey,France,Jordan and Iran,half a squadron of aircrafts from UAE, A naval vessel from Indonesia,7 th fleet of the US Navy from Gulf of Tonkin in Japan lead by 75000 ton nuclear powered aircraft carrier and also the world’s largest warship USS Enterprise,that had in it’s stock 70 fighters and bombers,and the British Naval group lead by the Eagle.Amidst all military buttress that the Pakistan Army received;The 7th fleet of the US Navy was the most formidable one.It also included guided missile cruiser USS King,guided missile destroyers USS Decatur,Parsons and Tartar Sam and a large amphibious assault ship USS Tripoli.But all the military buttress to Pakistan proved to be frail and futile when Russia dispatched a nuclear armed flotilla from it’s shores at Vladivostok (the headquarters of the Pacific fleet of Russian navy),which then was under jurisdiction of the then commander of Russia’s Pacific fleet Admiral Kruglyakov,in assistance of India’s otherwise frail navy with it’s most vigorous weapon being only the 20000 ton carrier Vikrant of Indian navy’s Eastern fleet that could carry only 20 light fighter aircrafts.
Russia’s this move came as a result of a stealthy liason between India and Russia in 1970 that guaranteed unconditional benevolent Russian military support to Indian army in case of a likely military strife that could prove baleful to India’s sovereignty.The Russian flotilla,having short range and not long range missiles,surfaced and encompassed the 7th US fleet,as the later approached the Indian waters of Bay of Bengal,blocking their access to Karachi, Dacca and Chittagong ports and compelling the US and allied forces to retreat.The Chinese abstained from giving military assistance to Pakistan fearing Russian retaliation by provision of ancillary air buttress to India.Thus the Russian assistance averted any foreign indulgence and virtually affirmed victory of Bangla Mukti Bahini and Indian forces against Pakistan army and allied heinous militia who were perpetrators of the largest genocide since the Holocaust in Nazi Germany!The fall Dacca and eastern command of Pakistani Army,which was marked by signing of instrumentation of surrender by surrendered Pakistani general Nyazi on 16th December 1971,was the largest such capitulation since General Plaulus’ surrender at Stalingrad in 1943!
The era of Mujib saw nationalization of institutions and increasing Soviet and Indian aid to Bangladesh that proved abortive in conceding promised stipulated results triggering widespread expostulations and militant movements against him (which also got aggravated further due to the 1974 Bangladesh famine).As a retaliation to this; Mujib was compelled to aggradize his authority and move towards an authoritarian regime of one party rule under Bangladesh Krishok Sromik Awami League (a merger of Bangladesh Awami League and Communist Party of Bangladesh) that triggered subsequent assassination of Mujib on 15th August 1975,appointment of two subsequent military appointed presidents [the renegade vice president of Mujib regime Mostaq Ahamed (who had been a perpetrator in Mujib’s assassination) and,after him,the then Chief Justice of Bangladesh Mohammad Sayem] both of whom kept martial law enforced and finally the passing over of presidential scepter into the hands of the then chief Martial law administrator General Ziaur Rahman in 1977 after Sayem’s assassination by renegade socialist troops.Zia reverted to multi party democracy (that led to emergence of Zia’s newly formed Bangladesh Nationalist Party as the main ruling party and Bangladesh Awami League as it’s main opposition),legitimized those convicted in war crimes into mainstream Bangladeshi politics,shifted the inclination of foreign policy of Bangladesh from Delhi, Kremlin and eastern block countries to Beijing, Islamabad and the western world and increased privatization that was needed to give impetus to Bangladesh’s till now crumbling economy.There had been more than 20 coups to usurp him,the final of which led to his assassination in 1981 triggering subsequent one after another appointment of military backed presidents ( firstly the then erstwhile vice president of Ziaur Rahman Abdus Sattar and then subsequently the then chief justice of Bangladesh Ahasanuddin Chowdhuri after the former was ousted in a military coup) paving the way for the then chief Martial law administrator Hussein Mohammad Ershad to gradually aggrandizing himself to the post of President of the then cabinet of ministers before finally proclaiming Presidency in the year of 1983.Repressive authoritarian Ershad cleaved the then 18 districts of Bangladesh into 64 districts, initiated the upazila system,enhanced privatization and foreign investment,made Islam the religion of state and moved the then economically insoluble Bangladesh towards a more pro western foreign policy away from Kremlin and the eastern block.Ershad ruled as an autocrat, although allowing ostentatious elections that succumbed to the interests of his Jatio Party giving it the needed majority in Parliament. Ershad abdicated in 1990 when the pressure from human rights groups,international community and concerted remonstrances of Shekh Hashina Wazed ( Mujib’s daughter) led Bangladesh Awami League and Begum Khaleda Zia led Bangladesh Nationalist Party became insurmountable paving the way for first general elections in the year 1991 in which Khaleda led Bangladesh Nationalist Party formed the government with pro Pakistani Jamaat e Islami. During this 1991-1996 tenure of Khaleda Zia government;the executive powers of President was passed on to the Prime Minister thus turning the post of president into a mere titular honorary rank.The victory of Bangladesh Nationalist Party during the initial elections of 1996 was dismissed shortly due to high anti incumbency against the government by the opposition that propounded allegations of rigging and human rights violations while during the elections.After successful foiling of a coup attempt; elections were held the very same year by the interim caretaker government which saw Hashina led Awami League winning the people’s mandate and forming the government.In the elections of 2001 Khaleda led Bangladesh Nationalist Party-Jamaat coalition was again voted back to power.Khaleda was reelected for an overall third term and a second consecutive term in 2006 parliamentary elections .But allegations of human rights violations and rigorous repression of the opposition prompted early untimely elections in 2009 which saw Awami League winning again the mandate of people of Bangladesh. Since then the daughter of Bangabandhu has won two consecutive intermittent mandates in 2014 and again in 2018. From 2014 Jamaat e Islami has been banned by the Supreme Court of Bangladesh from participating in general elections due to it’s pro Pakistani and anti secular ideology.Many of it’s leaders including former minister of Khaleda cabinet Motiur Rahman Nizami have been sentenced to death for war crimes during Bangladesh Liberation War.
In the last couple of years Bangladesh has made extraordinarily remarkable strides in HDI indices like decreasing infant mortality rate,increasing life expectancy and increasing literacy rate. More women than men now go to school in Bangladesh. Bangladesh, outperforming India and Pakistan in development parameters has caught the eyes of Nobel Laureates and economists like Dr Amartya Sen.If Bangladesh keeps up the momentum of it’s socioeconomic progress;time may soon come in future when people may again be heard saying ;”What Bengal thinks today ; India will think tomorrow.”
The writer feels proud as a Bengali that even the scars of the bitter partition of 1947 have not been able to deterr Bengal from it’s path to prosperity.
The biography of Nirmalendu Goon
Nirmalendu Prakash Goon Chowdhuri was born in a village called Kashtala ( later renamed Kashbon by Goon himself) in Netrakona district of Bengal province of British India to Binapani Dutta Roy / Goon and Sukhendu Prakash Goon Chowdhuri on 21st June 1945, a month after the termination of second World War when, like a holy Phoenix attempting to ascend from mortal ashes of it’s previous life, all of eastern Europe and a bulk of Western Europe were contending to recover from shards of bricks they had been reduced to by recurrent bombardments and counter bombardments of Allied and Axis powers.
Goon lost his mother at a very incipient stage of his life,shortly after they had attended the marriage of his younger material uncle Asit Ranjan Dutta Roy.
He grew up under motherly care of her step mother Sanjukta Goon, to whom his father got married to after the demise of Goon’s own mother Binapani.Goon grew up with his elder sister Rupali, younger sister Sonali,his half sister Jhillika and half brothers Niharendu and Shiblendu.He wrote his first poem at the age of seven sitting at the hindmost bench to avert the strident strictures of his school teacher Munindra Goon,who was also a paternal cousin brother of Goon.He spent the first sixteen years of his life at Netrakona.
After passing matriculation examination in 1962 Nirmalendu Goon got chance to study at Dhaka University but he chose Ananda Mohan College over Dhaka University in order to stay close to home.He studied at Ananda Mohan College for a year.Later he switched on to Netrakona College on advice of his father and completed his ISC from Netrokona College in 1964.During this time he used to write poetry for “Uttar Akash” patrika.He was among top 119 students in all over East Pakistan in ISC exams and the only student from Netrakona College in the same list.His father wanted him to take medical but he opted for pharmacy at Dhaka University.He then went to stay at Jagannath Hall of Dhaka University but was soon compelled to retract back home on the eve of 1964 riots of East Pakistan.Later he returned only to find his vacant position filled by another student.He went back to Meymenshing and did a BSc course at Ananda Mohan College before making it again to Dhaka University,this time with an aspiration to study Engineering with his paternal cousin Sukomol Bal in 1965,the year of 2nd Indo-Pak War when Pakistani Hindus were openly being treated as second citizens.Goon,being a Hindu student,was asked in an evasive manner about his connections to India.Knowing about the gradual exodus of his relatives to India he was rejected.The depression of not being able to study at Dhaka University, firstly in pharmacy and then in medical,drove him into a gloom that he surmounted by no other means but poetry.Poetry was his only escape from his otherwise bleak life.
While in Ananda Mohan College during ISc; his first English poem titled “Future” came out in College magazine due to no further space being left for Bengali poems.After joining Netrakona College he returned to writing in Bengali for college publications.After ISc Goon had, for a short interim epoch, also been a school teacher at Barhatta school.A student of him at that time made him come across the poetry journal “Kanthshwar”,which caught Goon’s eyes for being a poetry journal for beginner poets unlike the more popular contemporary poetry journal called Somokal which was for more matured poets.Goon wrote the Bengali poetry,the English translation of whose title would be “In the eyes of a revolutionary”, for the journal Saptahik Janata.He, after this, regularly began to write for “Azad” journal and sometimes also for “Mashik Mohammdio”. After this phase he began to write regularly for “Sambad” journal.
He had an immense contribution to development of Bengali poetry and literature of Meymenshing.He wrote for “Chashi” and “Mashik Takbir” journalas of Meymenshing,both of whose owners were close associates of Abdul Monayem Khan,a lawyer of Meymenshing district court bench who later became the longest serving Governor of East Bengal.Khan was a good friend of Goon’s elder paternal uncle,due to both being lawyers at Meymenshing district Court,and was regular visitor to Goon’s paternal home.
He became editor of Shurjo Foshol,a magazine of assembled works of all poets of Netrakona through which he wanted to promote poetry of notable poets of Netrakona including himself.This magazine was banned by the communal government of Pakistan for it’s literary works having predilection towards Communist views to which the Islamic Republic of Pakistan was strongly opposed.Goon, being it’s chief editor, was sent behind bars but was later granted bail after recurrent insistence by two of Goon’s friends from the Muslim League who deprecated the action arguing that he was a good person,despite being a Socialist.
Goon was very inspired by Chinese communism, although being a pro Indian by heart.He wanted end of Pakistan to get respite from the radically religion motivated policies of Pak government.He was inspired by the then newly emerging politician Shekh Mujibur Rahman and saw him as an oasis of Bengali Tagore & Nazrul oriented views amidst the vast desert of numerous radically Islamic politicians of Pakistan.He once even met Shekh Mujibur Rahman on a train to Netrakona.
Goon was on run and on the verge of fleeing to India, being victim of a false allegation (of which he was later acquitted while during his time at Dhaka), only to be balked by his friend Ilias Choudhuri who insisted Goon to return back Dhaka and carry on with poetry.Goon stayed for a long time at Iliyase’s then temporary shelter at house of the Muslim League chairman of a village. Goon pretended to stay at the village chief’s home with Ilias as a teacher aspirant before making it to Dhaka.It was Ilias who turned Goon’s course from an India bond emigrant back to a poet who was to contribute to opening eyes of bourgeois communal and ultra conservative people out of their narrow-mindedness.Ilias was inspired by Bangabandhu and later became a successful leader in the Bangladesh liberation War.He was the chairperson of the Netrakona Muktijodhdha Sansad till his death in 1994.During the time of Goon’s stay with Ilias;Dhaka was emerging as center of secular Bengali literary movement parallel to Kolkata shunting away from pro Islamic Bengali literary development.While on run Goon had been to houses of some very good friends and relatives;most notably a maternal aunt of him named Kanu, who had once wanted to adopt Goon as her own child (due to she otherwise being childless and also the only daughter of her father),and also a friend called Babul,whose grandfather was a preeminent doctor during British times. During this time Goon was also involved in campaign of a music ceremony organized by his friend Bachchu.
Bacchu’s marital affair with a Hindu girl Shivani made Goon ponder on social constraints that acted as obstacles to the then heterodox Hindu-Muslim marriages.To surmount the same he felt that the right to freedom of religion,belief and conversion had to be popularised among all so that one way conversion to Islam after marriage and hesitation to marry Muslims among other minority religious masses can be purged away.
Goon was opposed to partial anti-Hindu laws like Pakistan’s Enemy Property Act,by means of which Hindus in Pakistan were deprived of inheritance rights.
Perceiving the exodus of some members of the family to India as having ties to enemy country India;properties of Hindus were confiscated and later distributed among Muslim League leaders.Such oppositions brought him on the brink of arrest many times.
Goon wasn’t much religious either.He had a deep reverence towards an infinite eternal strength which he summoned as “you”.And it was always in his prayers,to that ” you “,to wipe out gloom, suffering and disparity.His continuous prayers for general welfare of the society didn’t ever get discrete,hesitant and discontinuous. He believed in truth of humanity and mankind and existence of god in one’s own self.He believed in worship through charity.
Goon was a football lover, unlike his friend Mamun, and was regular to football stadium for Victoria vs Wanderer’s football match.
After coming Dhaka Goon stayed at Tejgao Polytechnic hostel.He was helped there by his friends Mamun and Bachchu.Bachchu was chairperson of the students Union there.Mamun was much more attached to literary developments in Dhaka and took Goon to the editor of Kanthshwar Abdullah Sayed,who was also a teacher at Tejgao Polytechnic college.He began with publicising and advertising the journal Kanthshwar.This continued for 2 months. During this time notable President’s award winning poet of the time Malay Bhaumik took Goon to the leading poet of Kanthshwar Abul Hasan.Goon and Hasan entered Dhaka University now with the ostensible purpose to pursue Bengali honors but with the inner intent of pursuing his poetic and literary interests.Goon believed in poetry being a weapon to wipe out social evils and Mamun believed in poetry not only being confined just upto the society but also beyond it.Both differed in this regard but Goon understood the importance of the latter’s view too.
“Soddhigdho Sohojatri” was his first poem published in Kanthshwar in June 1967.He once gave an advertisement for the Netrakona Magazine Shurjo Foshol in Kanthshwar too.In1967 the annual theater was also composed by Goon himself.
During intensification of 6 point demand agitation Mujib was put behind bars and so were Mujib sympathizers.The editor-in-chief of Sambad newpaper’s literary section was imprisoned for being pro-Mujib.Goon persuaded the,otherwise fearful and reluctant,newly appointed editor Shahidulla Kaiser to get his poem on Shekh Mujibur Rahman published out which Mujib read himself!At that point of time,in the year 1968, the world mourned the assassination of Martin Luther King.Goon published a compilation of poems,by him (“Swetanger Shwore Doghdho”),Abul Hasan and many others,titled “Luther King ke Onudito Kobita Guchcho”,by selling which they tried to get back reparation for the expenditure incurred while publishing. Shekh Hashina,the now prime minister of Bangladesh, was also studying the same stream at Dhaka University but was 2 years junior to him.At that point of time Hasina didn’t perceive rightly the poetic skills of Goon and Hasan.She refused even to buy that compilation!
Goon,after Vietnam War in 1968,got the opportunity to hear recitation of Soviet poet Mikhail Lukonin during his visit to Pakistan. Goon’s poetic philosophy of having broader view of the world and of going beyond confines of own culture and country is the outcome of influence that Russian poet Lukonin’s socialism motivated poetic thoughts on Vietnam had on Goon’s then nascent journey through the world of poetry and poets.
Throughout his stay at Dhaka;Goon,along with Abul Hasan,went to,met and became familiar with some of the best literary figures of East Bengal at that time including poet Samsur Rahman,poet Shaheed Qadir,Abdul Mannan (West Bengal born),Ahshan Habib, Hasan Hafizur Rahman,Fazlul Shahbuddin, Muhammad Mahfullahar (the last four at Press Trust building of Dainik Pakistan, which was often seen as a trap set up by Ayub Khan to keep under constrain the prominent literary figures of Bengal at the time when the literary world of East Bengal was voicing up firmly against the communal authoritarian administration of Pakistan).
In early 1967 a poem of Goon got published at a quiet earlier age compared to that of his contemporary poets.This bought him closer to Sikandar Abu Jafar,the erstwhile editor of Samakal,and through him also to Al Mahmud.
Goon went home to Netrakona with Mamun and Hasan after being acquitted from the false allegation that had till then kept him on flee.He took Hasan to Netrakona two more times but could never Mamun again.
Goon’s father was a honored lifetime member at the Netrakona public library.
The library,once during a 1968 Netrakona visit,had honoured Goon and Hasan.
Due to discontinuation of course Goon wasn’t admitted to Jagannath hall of Dhaka University and had to shift between rooms of friends in Iqbal hall,Jinnah hall and other halls of Dhaka University. He also had to spent nights at rented guest houses and even at stadium,Kmlapur railway station,buses at bus depot (now replaced by the vast gardens of Banga bhawan, the presidential palace of Bangladesh), mosques (including the famous then under construction Baitul Mukkaram Mosque, which is now the largest mosque of Bangladesh)
At Dhaka University Goon was regular to the engineering universitie’s Ahashanullah hall to see the roommate of his paternal cousin Sukomol,who had a wonderful cassette recorder on which Goon used to tape and hear his newly published songs.In Mahshin hall Goon stayed at room of Sayad Kadir who entrusted Goon with the task of preparing literary manuscripts.Such prepared manuscripts by Bengali subject students were then edited by teachers of the Bengali department and sent to publishers of Bangla Bazar.Goon’s writing,being excellently neat, made him the most preferred writer by the editor Bengali subject teachers.This virtually brought Goon closer to publisher houses of Bangla Bazar,bringing him a step closer to his goal of becoming a successful writer and poet.While during his stay at rooms of Iqbal hall Goon had also influenced Helal Hafeez to take up writing poetry. Thus Helal Hafeez’s story of becoming a successful poet can also be attributed to Goon.
But despite getting opportunity to make different friends from various professions Goon was more lured by street life than hostels and rented homes because it gave him greater freedom without making him subjected to insubordination.
Goon, being a true poet, wanted to lead a life with it’s own unique exemplary course and Abul Hasan was his companion all throughout the early course of Goon’s river of life as a poet .
He and Hasan were more frequent to Dainik Pakistan to see great poetic talents and also to get up to the literary section, which was the centre of all interested in poetry,due to it being edited by deft poetic talents like Ahashan Habib.Earlier it was only Abul Hasan’s poetry that got published there but gradually Goon’s poetry began to gain more space.Goon and Hasan worked at the East Bengal Writer’s Association and even spend nights there. It’s editor Hasan Hafizur Rahman made Goon his assistant at Parikrama patrika (also published by the same association),were also Hafizur himself was the editor.This was because of Goon having had experience of working for an eon at Kanthshwar.
During this time in 1968;education minister of East Bengal made derogatory comments on Rabindranath Tagore and his literary contributions,against which there were widespread agitations.This led to natural rise of Secular poetic figures like Goon and Shamsur Rahman.On 31st April when the Engineer’s Institute organized “Bajme Nao ” aimed to enhance Urduization of Bengali literature bringing together Urdu literary figures from West Pakistan and pro Pakistani Bengali writers from East Bengal;the Bengali association of Dhaka University organised “Hajar Bochor er Bangla kobita” on 14th May the same year.Goon himself attended it.Poems of secular poets like Samsur Rahman were recited by the faculties.
Goon helped Hasan Hafizur Rahman in bringing together voices of contemporary notable literary figures of the time against the then ongoing plan of changes and manipulations in Bengali spellings that the government was planning to broach at that time.A five day summit dedicated to secular writers like Rabindranath, Nazrul, Michael, Galib and Iqbal was held at the Engineer’s College of Dhaka University from 5th-8th June were the opinions assembled by Goon were also to brought forward.Here Bengali writers deprecated all efforts of Pakistani government to vilify poetic views of Tagore and vindicated Tagore’s philanthropic views.
In 1969,when cyclone struck East Bengal, Goon’s father really got worried not getting a letter from Goon,who was then living on uncertain meagre income insufficient enough for him to live on food donated by followers.Goon was then busy with relief operations (Now he wrote poems like “Ekti Grihini Gram,Grambashi” based on his experiences in those relief camps).That’s why he had then ran short of time to write to home.
On 29 th July 1968 an assembly of poetry recitation by young poets was held at hotel Purbani. It’s report was broadcasted in national news of Dhaka Television,making it the most popular assembly of poetry recitation by young poets in that decade.The assembly was chaired by editor of Samakal Sikandar Abu Jafar.It was Goon’s first time on TV screen.The recitation was done by Goon, Hasan and few other most notable youth poets of East Bengal at that time. Hasan narrated his translation of a poetry as his own poetry there.He never ever claimed credit for that poem.On being asked by Goon why he did it;he had answered that it was only because he felt that all the poetry of the world, and not just his poetry, were his poetry.Hasan was also a veteran poet of the time who outperformed even Goon at times even after Goon had reduced his hegemony in the domain of poetry by erstwhile young poets.
On 28 th February 1968 Goon’s younger sister Sonali went away to India via Benapole Haridashpur Indo-Pak border.Goon,his father and a maternal uncle of Goon accompanied Sonali upto Benapole in East Bengal. On the West Bengal side she was received by Goon’s elder brother.Goon helped her sister with all emigration formalities at Dhaka’s Indian consular office.Sonali was going to come to Dacca to be employed as a nurse at Matrisadan o Shishumangal Kendra.But the plan went short of getting materialized when Goon’s elder brother deprecated it as a debasing job,when compared to the landlord stratum of the Goon family,when Goon’s father asked him for his consent via a letter on this matter.This view of Goon’s elder brother was different to Goon’s own opinion on the matter.Goon saw Sonali’s coming to work at Dhaka as nurse as a medium of economic stability of his otherwise uncertain livelihood as a poet.
He felt that if he could sacrifice everything for the sake of poetry then such a little bit of sacrifice by her for him won’t be anything unjust.Yet Goon didn’t voice any objection in this regard an accepted his elder brother’s opinion as authoritative.On the day of separation at the border Goon was so touched by the tears of separation in the wistful eyes of Sonali and his father that it became the solitary day in his life when he returned back home and turned back the pages of history to the date 14 th August 1947,repenting the bitter partition of India that brutally ripped apart families and made natives feel like outsiders in there own land. Goon felt that partition of India only fulfilled the vested interests of Congress,Muslim League and the British but was a bane for severed apart families like their very own.
Goon’s elder sister Rupali suffered from breast disease from very childhood that made her lag behind others in terms of academics.This further distressed her and aggravated her disease.On hearing in this regard via a letter from Goon’s father;Goon made arrangements for her being admitted to Mahakhali Bokhkho Byadhi Hospital were she,after being admitted,was mentored by wife of poet Dilwar.Many a times Goon and Hasan went to poet Dilwar’s home where his wife arranged lunch for them.Hasan had a strong penchant towards Rupali and was empathetic to her.The vice versa was also true and many a times when Goon came alone to see Rupali;she worried that it could be the outcome of skirmishes that was known to often break between Goon and Hasan.Goon then had to bring Hasan to Rupali to show that there hadn’t been anything of such kind and that considerable rapport was persisting between them.Many times Hasan got more bothered than Goon to see Rupali and took him to her with fruits purchased for her.But this didn’t last long as it was affirmed soon by the doctor that the disease had deteriorated and could only be cured if taken to Calcutta. Goon’s father, not having much money for treatment at Calcutta,took her back home.This disease became the cause of untimely death of Rupali.Abul Hasan and wife of poet Dilwar had also died untimely death because of breast diseases.From Goon’s vivid description of Abul Hasan in his autobiography it gets clear that had Hasan not suffered the untimely death;Bangladesh could have witnessed two contemporary Nirmalendu Goons today.In Choto Golpo patrika three to four stories by Goon were published, out of which the story “Haridash Kar Mara Gelen” was written by Goon by marshaling letters by Sonali and Haridash Kar to Goon’s father as per date. Haridash Kar made a cinema hall named “Rangmahal” at Netrakona worth one and a half lakh rupees but fled to Durgapur in West Bengal during communal tensions in East Bengal in 1950.Here he practiced law and now had a family with four married daughters and a son.One of his son-in-laws lived with his younger daughter Madhabi close to Sonali’s home.